AtNPR1 gene plays a crucial role in biotic resistance in plants. Immature embryo derived calli of wheat cv. Giza 164 were co-transformed with the plasmid pAHC25 containing bar and gus genes and the plasmid pJS406 containing AtNPR1 gene via Biolistic bombardment. The produced calli were subcultured on bialaphos containing medium (CIMB). Surviving calli were then regenerated on selection medium (MSRB) to produce green regenerated shoots, which were then transferred onto rooting/selection medium (FMSB). Regenerated rooted plantlets were transferred to soil pots in the control growth chamber for acclimatization. Only 48 plants succeeded in acclimatization and reached seed setting in biocontainment greenhouse. Transgene integration was confirmed by PCR and dot-blot analyses. The overall transformation frequency was 1.9%.

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