The aimed of this study is to know harmful effects of tartrazine (yellow 5- E102) on chromosomes and behavior in a natural Egyptian population of Drosophila melanogaster from Tanta, Egypt. Five concentrations of tartrazine (1, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10%) previously were used for five generations. Each generation was allowed to reproduce for 12 days under tartrazine exposure. Additionally, tartrazine effects (toxicity) on a long term of the male and female lethal flies were detected, and it had an impact on the ratio between male and female (sexual ratio). Chi-square statistic at 0.05 level of significance showed that there are significant difference on the sexual ratio between males and females (χ2 = 6.0) at the 5% Tart., concentration in the fifth generation. Inversions 3L(P) and 3R(C) were detected only after treatment with tartrazine concentrations in fifth generations at the Cytological part in this study. The dose-effect- behavioral functions (learning) for tartrazine concentrations determined that high dose reduced insects ability to learn which affects in his behavior. Results of the study showed that tartrazine concentrations increased the rate of toxicity, mutations, genotoxicity, disruption of sex ratio and the ability to learn was lost.

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