Growth hormone affects a lot of physiological processes and traits, such as metabolism, milk and meat production. Polymorphism at DNA level might affect gene function and consequently the trait. The aim of this study was to identify the variation in the growth hormone gene between and within species (cattle, sheep and goat). The results showed that all variations between species located at intronic region, whereas exon 3 didn’t have any species-specific genetic variations. There is no SNPs identified between the breeds of cattle, whereas the variation within breeds of sheep and goat located at an intronic and exonic region.

Full Text:



Capon, F., M. H. Allen, M. Ameen, A. D. Burden, D. Tillman, J. N. Barker and R. C. Trembath (2004). A synonymous SNP of the corneodesmosin gene leads to increased mRNA stability and demonstrates association with psoriasis across diverse ethnic groups. Hum. Mol. Genet., 13: 2361-2368.

Chung, E. R., T. J. Rhim and S. K. Han (1996). Associations between PCR-RFLP markers of growth hormone and prolactin genes and production traits in dairy cattle. Korean J. Anim. Sci., 38: 321-336.

Clop, A., F. Marcq, H. Takeda, D. Pirottin, X. Tordoir, B. Bibe, J. Bouix, F. Caiment, J. M. Elsen, F. Eychenne, C. Larzul, E. Laville, F. Meish, D. Milenkovic, J. Tobin, C. Charlier and M. Georges (2006). A mutation creating a potential illegitimate microRNA target site in the myostatin gene affects muscularity in sheep. Nat. Genet., 38: 813-818.

Codon Usage Database:

Dario, C., D. Carnicella, F. Ciotola, V. Peretti and G. Bufano (2008). Polymorphism of Growth Hormone GH1-AluI in Jersey Cows and Its Effect on Milk Yield and Composition. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 21: 1-5.

Davidson, M. B. (1987). Effect of growth hormone on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Endocr. Rev., 8: 115-131.

Duan, J., M. S. Wainwright, J. M. Comeron, N. Saitou, A. R. Sanders, J. Gelernter and P. V. Gejman (2003). Synonymous mutations in the human dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) affect mRNA stability and synthesis of the receptor. Hum. Mol. Genet., 12: 205-216.

Dybus, A. (2002). Association of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) genes polymorphism with milk production trait in Polish black-and-white cattle. Anim. Sci. Pap. Reports, 20: 203-212.

Fan, B., S. Lkhagvadorj, W. Cai, J. Young, R. M. M. Smith, J. C. M. C. M. Dekkers, E. Huff-Lonergan, S. M. M. Lonergan and M. F. F. Rothschild (2010). Identification of genetic markers associated with residual feed intake and meat quality traits in the pig. Meat Sci., 84: 645-650.

Fedorova, L. and A. Fedorov (2003). Introns in gene evolution. Genetica, 118: 123-131.

Gordon, D., D. Quick and C. Erwin (1983). Nucleotide sequence of the bovine growth hormone chromosomal gene. Mol. Cell., 33: 81-95.

Hattori, N. (2009). Expression, regulation and biological actions of growth hormone (GH) and ghrelin in the immune system. Growth Horm. IGF Res., 19: 187-197.

Hediger, R., S. E. Johnson, W. Barendse, R. D. Drinkwater, S. S. Moore and J. Hetzel (1990). Assignment of the growth hormone gene locus to 19q26-qter in cattle and to 11q25-qter in sheep by in situ hybridization. Genomics, 8: 171-174.

Hua, G. H., S. L. Chen, J. N. Yu, K. L. Cai, C. J. Wu, Q. L. Li, C. Y. Zhang, A. X. Liang, L. Han, L. Y. Geng, Z. Shen, D. Q. Xu and L. G. Yang (2009). Polymorphism of the growth hormone gene and its association with growth traits in Boer goat bucks. Meat Science, 81: 391-395.

Ibeagha-Awemu, E. M., P. Kgwatalala and X. Zhao (2008). A critical analysis of production-associated DNA polymorphisms in the genes of cattle, goat, sheep, and pig. Mamm. Genome, 19: 591-617.

Ishida, T., A. Umebayashi, S. Tsuruta, R. Akashi and H. Harada (2010). Polymorphisms in growth hormone gene and their associations with calf weight in Japanese Black cattle. Anim. Sci. J., 81: 623-629.

Kayali, I. M. (2013). Using of molecular genetic techniques in determining the fertility of sheep male. PhD Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

King, R. C., D. Stansfield and P. K. Mulligan (2006). A Dictionary of Genetics. 7th, Oxford University Press; New York

Le Hir, H., A. Nott and M. Moore (2003). How introns influence and enhance eukaryotic gene expression . Biochem. Sci., 28: 215-220.

Malveiro, E., M. Pereira, P. X. Marques, I. C. Santos, C. Belo, R. Renaville and A. Cravador (2001). Polymorphisms at the five exons of the growth hormone gene in the algarvia goat: Possible association with milk traits. Small Ruminant Research, 41: 163-170.

Mullen, M. P., C. O. Lynch, S. M. Waters, D. J. Howard, P. O’Boyle, D. A. Kenny, F. Buckley, B. Horan and M. G. Diskin (2011). Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 genes are associated with milk production, body condition score and fertility traits in dairy cows. Genet. Mol. Res., 10: 1819-1830.

Pagani, F. and F. E. F. Baralle (2004). Genomic variants in exons and introns: identifying the splicing spoilers. Nat. Rev. Genet., 5: 389-396.

Pinton, P., L. Schibler, E. Cribiu, J. Gellin and M. Yerle (2000). Localization of 113 anchor loci in pigs: improvement of the comparative map for humans, pigs, and goats. Mamm. Genome, 11: 306-315.

Ramser, J., M. E. Ahearn, C. Lenski, K. O. Yariz, H. Hellebrand, M. von Rhein, R. D. Clark, R. K. Schmutzler, P. Lichtner, E. P. Hoffman, A. Meindl and L. Baumbach-Reardon (2008). Rare missense and synonymous variants in UBE1 are associated with X-linked infantile spinal muscular atrophy. Am. J. Hum. Genet., 82: 188-193.

Sami, A. J. (2007). Structure-function relation of somatotropin with reference to molecular modeling. Curr. Protein Pept. Sci., 8: 283-292.

Schibler, L., D. Vaiman, A. Oustry, C. Giraud-Delville, E. P. Cribiu and E. P. Cribiu (1998). Comparative gene mapping: a fine-scale survey of chromosome rearrangements between ruminants and humans. Genome Res., 8: 901-915.

Silveira, L. G. G., L. R. Furlan, R. A. Curi, A. L. J. Ferraz, M. M. de Alencar, L. C. A. Regitano, C. L. Martins, M. B. Arrigoni, L. Suguisawa, A. C. Silveira and H. N. de Oliveira (2008). Growth hormone 1 gene (GH1) polymorphisms as possible markers of the production potential of beef cattle using the Brazilian Canchim breed as a model. Genet. Mol. Biol., 31: 874-879.

Supakorn, C. (2009). The Important Candidate Genes in Goats – A. Review J. Sci. Tech., 6: 17-36.

Yamano, Y., K. Oyabayashi, M. Okuno, M. Yato, N. Kioka, E. Manabe, H. Hashi, H. Sakai, T. Komano, K. Utsumi and A. Iritani (1988). Cloning and sequencing of cDNA that encodes goat growth hormone. FEBS Lett., 228: 301-304.

Yao, J., S. E. Aggrey, D. Zadworny and U. Kiihnlein (1996). Sequence variations in the bovine growth hormone gene characterized by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and their association with milk production traits in Holsteins. Genetics, 144: 1809-1816.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Egyptian Journal of Genetics And Cytology

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.